This widespread species ranges from south central Canada, through most of the U.S. to northern Mexico. It is absent from the state of Washington and northern New England. It is a yearlong resident in the southern part of its range. It occurs through much of Idaho.
It occurs in a variety of common habitats, including fields, vacant lots, pastures, and weedy and disturbed areas.
Caterpillars feed on most parts of native and introduced members of the mustard
family (Brassicaceae) and the caper family (Capparidaceae).
Adult: Butterflies drink flower nectar.
There are generally three generations of caterpillars each year through most of its range. There may be four in parts of the south, and in certain regions there may be continuous generations. Pupae can overwinter in a physiological state called diapause. Adults generally fly from February to November, but may fly all year long in the southernmost part of its range.
Males actively patrol in search of receptive females, although females have been reported to seek out males as well. Females lay yellow eggs singly on the leaves and flowers of host plants.
|Idaho Status:||Unprotected nongame species.|
G4; population levels are secure, but may be of concern in the future.
Opler, P. A., H. Pavulaan, and R. E. Stanford. 1995. Butterflies of North America. Jamestown, North Dakota, USA: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/distr/lepid/bflyusa/bflyusa.htm (Version 05Nov98).
Opler, P. A. and A. B.Wright. 1999. A Field Guide to the Western Butterflies. Second Edition. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, New York, USA, 540 pp.
Pyle, R. M. 1981. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, New York, USA, 924 pp.
Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA, 583 pp.
Stanford, R. E. and P. A. Opler. 1993. Atlas of Western U.S.A. Butterflies (Including Adjacent Parts of Canada and Mexico). Published by authors, Denver, Colorado, USA, 275 pp.