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(right) Incorrect Historical Marker, corner of Carter St. and S. 5th Ave., Idaho State University Campus, Pocatello. The monument was corrected in 1993. The Oregon Trail did not cross the Portneuf River in the Pocatello area.

(left) Aerial view of the Twin Sisters, at the south edge of the Silent City of Rocks. The Sisters were landmarks on the California Trail, which can be seen crossing through the gap in the rocks at the base of the photograph. The trail can be clearly seen to the right of the gap. The left Twin Sister is composed of Archean granitic gneiss that crystallized about 2.6 billion years ago. The right Twin Sister is made of Oligocene granite of the Almo Pluton that cooled about 30 million years ago, (September, 1988).


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  8. Haines, Aubrey, 1973, Historic Sites along the Oregon Trail: Denver Service Center, National Park Service.

  9. Harstad, Peter J., 1968, The Lander Trail, Idaho Yesterdays: v. 12, no. 3, p. 14-28.

  10. Hill, W.E., 1987, The Oregon Trail: Yesterday and Today: Caldwell, Idaho, The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 179 p.

  11. Lavender, David S., 1963, Westward Vision: The Story of the Oregon Trail: New York, McGraw Hill Book Co.,

  12. Merrill, I.R., 1990 Tim Goodale and his cutoff: A major trail segment during and after the fourth emigration wave: Overland Journal, v.8 no.3, p. 9-16.

  13. Paden, Irene D., 1943, The Wake of the Prairie Schooner: New York, The Macmillian Co.

  14. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management and Idaho State Historical Society, 1993, Emigrant Trails of Southern Idaho: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office, 3380 Americana Terrace, Boise, Idaho 83706, 233 p.

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  16. Unruh, J.D., Jr., 1982 (reprint), The Plains Across: Chicago, Illinois, University of Illinois Press, 364p.